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extra mural studies
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ems TAXONOMY OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS  
 
 
Language : English
 
Duration :10 months
 
On Sundays only
 
Time : 10 AM to 2 PM
 
Fees : Instruction Fees 6000/- and Cost of Field Trip is 3000/-(+/-)
 
Venue : Health Centre Bldg, Vidyanagari, University of Mumbai, Mumbai - 400 098.
 
*Admissions open from May 2011
 
 
PLANT TAXONOMY
 
TOPICS
 
Introduction :
 

plant taxonomy Taxonomy and Systematic Botany

 
primary care Taxonomy and its Significance. Opportunities offered by Taxonomy
 
primary care Its dependence on other branches of Botany such as Morphology, Anatomy, Embryology, Cytology, Ecology and Palaeobotany.
primary care Principles of Taxonomy :- Classification :-Categories : i) Major ii) Minor iii) Intraspecific
 
primary care History of Classification : Periods :(a) Classification based on Habits (Morphology)(b) Classification based on Number (Artificial)(c) Classification based on Relationships (Natural)(d) Classification based on Phylogeny (Evolution)
 
primary care Systems of Classification :(a) Old :- Theophrastus, Aristotle, Lamarck etc. (b) General Classification of Plant Kingdom: Vedic reference, Chinese, Egyptian , Assyrian Aztecs etc.(c) New:- Bentham and Hooker, Engler & Prantl, Rendle, Bessey, Hutchinson, Takhtajian, Cronquist.
 
PLANT NOMENCLATURE :
 
astrophysics Rules of Nomenclature (a) Vedic period (b) Western old period
 
astrophysics Knowledge of International code of Botanical nomenclature:Paris Code, Rochester Code, Vienna Code, American Code and present ones.
 
astrophysics PLANT IDENTIFICATION : METHODS:(a) Pre-identified material for comparison (b) Herbarium and its techniques (c) Literature and Botanical Gardens
astrophysics KEY PREPARATION AND USE :Knowledge of Flora
 
astrophysics PRACTICAL STUDIES :Families of Flowering plants :- Available in and around Mumbai. (Angiosperms and Gymnosperms) and Floral Formulae.Families of Non-flowering plants - Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.
astrophysics PLANT BIODIVERISTY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY :(a) Significance of Biodiversity (b) Importance of Biodiversity(c) Reasons for loss of Biodiversity(d) Conservation practices :- in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, Gene Banks.(e) Experimental taxonomy & Biosystematics (f) Genetic bar code for every plant species :- To develop DNA bar coding as scientific tool for confirming identification of species and to put that tool to work for both Science and Society.
 
astrophysics FIELD WORK AND PROJECTS : Type of Projects :(a) Creative projects eg. Charts, Models etc.(b) Collection projects eg. Information regarding Herbaria, Botanic Gardens, Scientists (connected with Taxonomic work).(c) Survey project : eg. Survey of plants of a given area.(d) Research type of projects : Topics related to helping in identification and classification of Plants (Trichomes, Pollen, seed germination, Leaf Structure) (a) Preparation of material depicting morphological parameters such as Leaf forms, Canopy shapes, Basic bark pattern by impression techniques and photographs.
 
astrophysics KNOWLEDGE OF BOTANICAL TERMS WITH ILLUSTRATIONS :
 
astrophysics VISUALS :-
 
astrophysics BBC Film. David Attenborough (Plant & Animal Science)
 
astrophysics Biology: An Environmental Approach : Diversity Among Living things John Murray, Albemarle Street, London.
 
astrophysics National Geographic Films.
 
ANIMAL TAXONOMY
 
Evolution & Phylogeny
Origin of Species & the Geological Time Scale
 
The Principles of Classification

a) Purpose of Classification

b) Significance of Taxonomy & Opportunities offered

c) History of Classification

d) Basics of Animal Classification- Number of Animal species (Comparative Analysis)- Population, Genera, species- Homology and Analogy - Similarity in origin and similarity in use.- Types of Symmetry and the Axes, planes and region in animal bodiese)

e) Different concepts of classification based on: - Morphology, Anatomy, Genetics, Molecular, Behaviour

f) Phylogeny and Taxonomy- Cladistic (Phylogenetic) Systematics- Phenetic Systematics

g) Rules of Nomenclature: Procedure of Naming an animal- Common or Regional names- Scientific names

h) Bio-geography (Zoogeography) - Realms, Distributions, Migrations

i) Important Animal Taxonomists/Evolutionary Biologists: Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, Smith (Fauna of British India), Boulanger, Alfred Russell Wallace, Carl Linnaeus (?), Russel, et al.

j) Life Cycles of select animals

k) Life History Strategies

l) Taxidermy, Collection & Animal Preservation

m) Dissection for Taxonomic Identification

n) Chemotaxonomy

o) Familiarisation & Use of Keys for identification

 
General Characteristics
a) General Chart of Classification

b) General Characteristics of all Phyla in Evolutionary Hierarchy- Palaeozoology (Evolutionary aspect)- Protozoa, Metazoa, Parazoa- Incomplete & Complete Digestive Tract
- Number of germ layers- Coelom: Types, Haemocoel & Pseudocoel- Chordata, Non-Chordata
- Segmentation- Appendages & Locomotion- Selection
- Sex & Embryonic Development, Larvae- Behaviour
 
Classification of Animals

a) Phylum Protozoa

b) Phylum Porifera

c) Phylum Coelenterata

d) Phylum Platyhelminthes

e) Phylum Nematoda

f) Miscellaneous Phyla

g) Phylum Annelida

h) Phylum ArthropodaClass Insecta - BeetlesAnts Butterflies & Moths Class Arachnida - ScorpionsSpiders

i) Phylum Mollusca

j) Phylum Echinodermata

k) Phylum Chordata (Lower Chordates)

l) Class Cyclostomata

m) Class Chondrichthyes

n) Class Osteicthyes

o) Class Amphibia

p) Class Reptilia- Geckos, Lizards, Tortoises & Turtles- Snakes

q) Class Aves-Warblers/Birds of Prey

r) Class Mammalia-Bats

 
The meaning of the scientific terms to be provided, wherever possible.Behavioural pattern of at least few animals to be explained.
 

Systematics & Modern Biology
- Cloning, Hybridisation, Forensics

- DNA Fingerprinting, Chromatography (Bile Acids)

- In vitro Fertilisation & Gene Banks (Cryogenics)

 

Conservation & Taxonomy
- Protected Area Network

- Endangered & Extinct Species (IUCN Red list)

- Trade (Skin, Fur, Bones) & Consumption of Wild Animals

 
Classwork - Some simple Exercises in Taxonomy
 
Note: Number of hours shown will be common for the theory and practicals.
 
 
 
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